Cannabidiol (CBD) has become one of the most popular products in the entire cannabis industry, showing up in local coffee shops, pharmacies, and dispensaries. Despite the explosive popularity of CBD, there is still a lot of confusion about what CBD is and how it affects humans.
CBD is recognized as having a number of potentially anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety, and neuroprotective qualities, many of which can have positive effects on a broad range of health conditions. However, it's still important to fully grasp not only the positive ways CBD can affect you but also any of the potential side effects.
What are the side effects of CBD?
If you consume pure CBD, you are unlikely to get sick or experience unpleasant side effects. A 2017 World Health Organization report concluded that CBD is “generally well-tolerated with a good safety profile,” and further stated that “in humans, CBD exhibits no effects indicative of any abuse or dependence potential.”
However, people participating in CBD-related studies have at times reported several side effects, including extreme sleepiness, decreased appetite, diarrhea, fatigue, convulsions, vomiting, and some abnormal results on liver function tests. These side effects usually happen with doses much larger than most people usually consume.
Finally, there are also some human studies that suggest that CBD may have a negative effect on your immune system. As one study concluded, "the data overwhelmingly support the notion that CBD is immune suppressive."
Can CBD interfere with other medications?
Yes, CBD can interfere with medications that carry a “grapefruit warning.” Because CBD is processed in the liver, along with the majority of prescription medications in the US, adverse interactions are possible. If you take any prescription medication, talk with your doctor before trying CBD.
Has anyone died from CBD?
A 2017 review of clinical research published in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research confirmed that CBD is generally very safe, particularly when compared to other drugs. In general, the biggest risk when consuming a huge dose of CBD may be getting sleepy as the cannabinoid can have tranquilizing effects in large doses.
However, the journal Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine reported a CBD-linked fatality in 2019. According to the report, a 56-year-old woman presented with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, a rare but serious disorder of the skin and mucous membranes. The patient had begun using a CBD extract spray one week prior to being admitted to a hospital emergency room, where she later died of septic shock.
The woman had reported consistent use of other CBD products over a five-year period prior to this incident, and it is unclear whether the new spray caused her to develop Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, though the authors of the report suspect that it did. The patient, however, had a complex medical history including coronary artery disease and hypertension, so linking her death directly to CBD may not illustrate the full picture.
The bottom line is that CBD appears unlikely to be fatal, but exceptions may exist, and collaboration with your physician is essential before starting a regimen.
Can a dog overdose on CBD oil?
Within the rapidly growing pet CBD market, products for our furry friends are especially popular, which has led many pet owners to wonder, can a dog overdose on CBD oil? According to the American Kennel Club, there is not a lot of definitive evidence on how CBD affects dogs.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that CBD oil may help treat pain and seizures in dogs and that it has beneficial anti-inflammatory, anti-nausea, and anti-anxiety properties, just as has been observed in humans. CBD may also help improve appetite and promote heart health in dogs, and many CBD-infused dog treats and CBD oil for dogs are readily available on the market.
So far, anecdotal evidence suggests that side effects of CBD overconsumption by dogs include dry mouth, lower blood pressure, and drowsiness. Without definitive evidence, it's hard to say whether dogs can overdose on CBD. Recognizing that “we do not know what size dosage would be toxic,” the American Kennel Club suggests “to start out with small amounts and then closely monitor the effects” to make sure you don't inadvertently give your dog too much CBD.
Is there a limit to how much CBD you can take?
To avoid side effects with any medication, it's important to take the smallest effective dose. So far, scientific research has not pinpointed any clear limits to how much CBD is too much. Dosages in studies cover a very broad range, from as little as 1 milligram to as much as 1,500 milligrams per day. Currently, no dosage has been identified as hazardous, but it is possible to abuse cannabis, and you should seek medical intervention if CBD is interfering with how you function in daily life.
The key to dosing is figuring out how it affects your unique body. Every person is different, and since researchers have not identified any precise doses, the best thing to do is start slowly and pay attention to how your body reacts.
Fortunately, you can experiment with CBD confidently knowing you are unlikely to overdose or get sick from taking too much. Instead, you can focus on figuring out the lowest dose of CBD that will give you the type of experience and health benefits you seek.
First-time consumers should start with a minimal dose (as small as one drop of oil or 5 milligrams per day) and gradually increase the dosage over time while paying attention to the effects of different amounts. This process should be continued until the most effective dosage for your specific condition or ailment is achieved.
If you reach a point where you don't feel significantly better by adding to your dosage, or you feel worse, then scale back the CBD and discuss your dosing options with your physician.
How long do the effects of CBD last?
CBD doesn't get you high like its cousin THC, but it does affect your brain chemistry; therefore, it's actually psychoactive. How long those psychoactive effects last depends on several factors — consumption method, dose, and body chemistry.
First, it depends on the form of CBD you try. An edible or tincture works after being processed in the digestive system. So it may take an hour or more to feel any effects but they last longer, generally an hour or more. Smoking or vaping CBD-rich cannabis flower or concentrates deliver immediate results that fade within the hour. A topical cream or muscle balm may provide relief for hours.
Next up is how much CBD you ingest or rub on. Generally speaking, consuming more could make your experience last longer when it comes to CBD consumed orally or via inhalation. Using more of a topical cream probably won't affect how long it lasts.
Another component is your own body chemistry or endocannabinoid system. We all have the same cannabinoid receptors throughout our bodies but respond differently to CBD depending on whether we consume it frequently, the amount of CBD in the product, whether it's CBD isolate or full-spectrum, and other individual factors.