CBD oil — a concentrate, tincture, or cannabis extract with a high concentration of cannabidiol (CBD), whether extracted from marijuana or hemp — is a rising health and wellness trend and one of the most speculated-about products. A couple of factors have contributed to the rise of CBD oil in the 21st century, namely the essential-oil boom in the wellness market, and the growing field of research which attributes many of the most sought-after medicinal effects of cannabis to CBD.
As research continues to investigate CBD's massive potential to help treat a wide variety of physical and mental ailments, many parents wonder whether CBD oil could be a safer medicine for their ailing children than conventional pharmaceuticals. Is CBD oil safe for kids? We'll look at what CBD oil is, how it interacts with the body, and the factors parents should consider when considering CBD oil as a treatment option for their child.
CBD oil - What is it and how does it interact with the body?
CBD is the second most prominent compound of the cannabis plant, right behind THC, the cannabinoid most responsible for the plant's psychotropic and intoxicating effects.
Phytocannabinoids, or cannabinoids that derive from the cannabis plant, interact with our bodies through the endocannabinoid system (ECS), where they bind to cannabinoid receptors and are broken down by enzymes. CBD elicits therapeutic effects by modulating the interactions that take place at the cannabinoid receptors. These receptors are responsible for maintaining homeostasis, or the body's means of maintaining a steady function of its vital systems. CBD is also known to interact with more than 60 other sites in the brain and body.
CBD's interaction with the body through these receptor pathways is complex, which is why the potential benefits of CBD vary widely, both in terms of potency and type of effect. The chemical makeup of the various types of CBD oil, including the actual dosage within the product, will also alter the potency and probability of noticeable effects. CBD oil typically falls into one of three product categories:
- Full-spectrum or whole-plant CBD oil: A mix of CBD, minor cannabinoids, cannabis-derived terpenes, and varying amounts of THC. Full-spectrum cannabis extract is defined by including every compound extracted from the plant.
- Broad Spectrum: An almost-full spectrum of all of the compounds extracted from the plant, but THC has been removed.
- Isolate: An isolation of pure CBD powder, 99.9% or above in purity, usually mixed with a carrier oil for consistency. CBD oils of 99.5% CBD or less may still have trace amounts of THC.
Is CBD oil safe for children?
Because the potential effects of CBD oil vary greatly, being able to say definitively whether CBD oil is safe for children is difficult. However, research has indicated that children may safely take daily doses of up to 20 milligrams per kilogram of body weight. Adverse side effects of CBD are uncommon, even in high doses, with sleepiness being the most common. Several studies have implicated CBD in the effective treatment of child epilepsy, behavioral conditions, and perinatal brain injury in children. In fact, the only CBD treatment approved by the Food and Drug Administration treats two rare forms of childhood epilepsy.
The effects of CBD oil on adults vs. children
The extent to which the effects of CBD oil differ between adults and children remains largely under-researched. Because the nature of CBD absorption varies significantly from patient to patient, and research into pediatric use of CBD is still limited, the precise differences in response between adult and child patients are also difficult to pin down.
What parents should consider
Due to the nature of cannabinoids and the complex ways in which they interact with the body, there is no one-size-fits-all approach to dosing CBD oil for children or adults. Though studies suggest that it's nearly impossible to take an unsafe amount of CBD, the best approach is to talk to your child's physician for a consultation and further guidance. Children who take CBD should be medically supervised.
Read CBD oil labels
When considering a CBD oil product for pediatric care, look out for signs of a reputable brand on product labeling and watch out for buzzwords with no scientific value or definition, such as “organic,” “pure,” or “natural.” In the United States, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) doesn't currently allow CBD oil labels to make claims of curing or treating diseases and conditions. All reputable CBD products have a certificate of analysis available from the manufacturer or company's website.
Most reputable CBD oil products will have the following information on a product label:
- Amount of active CBD per serving
- Supplement Fact Panel, including other ingredients
- Net weight
- Manufacturer or distributor name
- Suggested use
- Distinction as full-spectrum, broad-spectrum, or isolate
- Batch or date code
Mixing CBD oil with other medications
Are there any risks mixing CBD oil with other medications that parents should know about? Though CBD is generally considered a safe alternative medicine, especially in small doses, it may have unwanted interactions with other medications. CBD may alter the metabolism of compounds found in a variety of other medications by temporarily inhibiting the enzyme system cytochrome P450. If you're concerned about other medications your child is taking that may interact negatively with CBD oil, consult with a cannabis specialist and your child's pediatrician to assess the risk.
Safe consumption methods for children
When dosed properly, relatively safe consumption methods of CBD include tinctures, drops, and capsules. Children should generally be given CBD oil orally, as opposed to adult-use methods such as vaporizing and combusting high-CBD cannabis flower. Epidiolex is a cannabis-derived oral medicine with CBD as the active ingredient, approved by the FDA for use in treating epileptic seizures in patients ages 2 and older.
Though CBD and THC have been found to enhance the therapeutic effects of one another, it is illegal for anyone younger than 21 to consume THC for medical purposes, though this varies from state to state. Exceptions are made with a physician's or authorized health professional's recommendation and parental approval for children younger than 21.
Furthermore, THC remains a Schedule I drug under the Federal Controlled Substances Act, and only hemp-derived CBD produced under the regulations of the 2018 Farm Bill is legal.
Consult a cannabis specialist
If you're a parent considering CBD as a treatment method for your child, consulting a cannabis specialist in addition to your pediatrician may help you make a more educated decision. Many physicians, including pediatricians, lack exposure to current marijuana research and remain, to some extent, in the dark about medical cannabis. If you're looking for specific advice on cannabinoids, doses, and product types that will benefit your child's condition, a cannabis specialist is much more likely to be able to provide helpful answers.